Exploratory Data Analysis in R Programming (6 Examples)

In this R programming tutorial you’ll learn how to explore a data frame.

Example Data

data(iris)                        # Example data frame

Example 1: Apply nrow() Function to Get Number of Rows

nrow(iris)                        # Number of rows
# [1] 150

Example 2: Apply ncol() Function to Get Number of Columns

ncol(iris)                        # Number of columns
# [1] 5

Example 3: Apply names() Function to Get Column Names

names(iris)                       # Column names
# [1] "Sepal.Length" "Sepal.Width"  "Petal.Length" "Petal.Width"  "Species"

Example 4: Apply head() Function to Display First Six Data Frame Rows

head(iris)                        # Display first six rows
#   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
# 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
# 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
# 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa

Example 5: Apply str() Function to Show Structure of Data Frame Variables

str(iris)                         # Column structure
# 'data.frame':	150 obs. of  5 variables:
#  $ Sepal.Length: num  5.1 4.9 4.7 4.6 5 5.4 4.6 5 4.4 4.9 ...
#  $ Sepal.Width : num  3.5 3 3.2 3.1 3.6 3.9 3.4 3.4 2.9 3.1 ...
#  $ Petal.Length: num  1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.5 ...
#  $ Petal.Width : num  0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 ...
#  $ Species     : Factor w/ 3 levels "setosa","versicolor",..: 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ...

Example 6: Apply summary() Function to Compute Descriptive Statistics

summary(iris)                     # Summary statistics
#   Sepal.Length    Sepal.Width     Petal.Length    Petal.Width   
#  Min.   :4.300   Min.   :2.000   Min.   :1.000   Min.   :0.100  
#  1st Qu.:5.100   1st Qu.:2.800   1st Qu.:1.600   1st Qu.:0.300  
#  Median :5.800   Median :3.000   Median :4.350   Median :1.300  
#  Mean   :5.843   Mean   :3.057   Mean   :3.758   Mean   :1.199  
#  3rd Qu.:6.400   3rd Qu.:3.300   3rd Qu.:5.100   3rd Qu.:1.800  
#  Max.   :7.900   Max.   :4.400   Max.   :6.900   Max.   :2.500  
#        Species  
#  setosa    :50  
#  versicolor:50  
#  virginica :50  
#                 
#                 
#

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