Descriptive Statistics Using summary() Function in R (3 Examples)

This article explains how to compute descriptive statistics using the summary function in the R programming language.

Creation of Example Data

data(iris)                                # Iris flower data set
head(iris)
#   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
# 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
# 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
# 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa

Example 1: Compute Summary Statistics of Column or Vector

summary(iris$Sepal.Length)                # Using summary function
#  Min. 1st Qu.  Median    Mean 3rd Qu.    Max. 
# 4.300   5.100   5.800   5.843   6.400   7.900

Example 2: Compute Summary Statistics of Data Frame

summary(iris)                             # Using summary function
#  Sepal.Length    Sepal.Width     Petal.Length    Petal.Width          Species  
# Min.   :4.300   Min.   :2.000   Min.   :1.000   Min.   :0.100   setosa    :50  
# 1st Qu.:5.100   1st Qu.:2.800   1st Qu.:1.600   1st Qu.:0.300   versicolor:50  
# Median :5.800   Median :3.000   Median :4.350   Median :1.300   virginica :50  
# Mean   :5.843   Mean   :3.057   Mean   :3.758   Mean   :1.199                  
# 3rd Qu.:6.400   3rd Qu.:3.300   3rd Qu.:5.100   3rd Qu.:1.800                  
# Max.   :7.900   Max.   :4.400   Max.   :6.900   Max.   :2.500

Example 3: Compute Summary Statistics of Linear Regression Model

my_model <- lm(Sepal.Length ~ ., iris)    # Estimating model
summary(my_model)                         # Using summary function
# Call:
# lm(formula = Sepal.Length ~ ., data = iris)
# 
# Residuals:
#      Min       1Q   Median       3Q      Max 
# -0.79424 -0.21874  0.00899  0.20255  0.73103 
# 
# Coefficients:
#                   Estimate Std. Error t value Pr(>|t|)    
# (Intercept)        2.17127    0.27979   7.760 1.43e-12 ***
# Sepal.Width        0.49589    0.08607   5.761 4.87e-08 ***
# Petal.Length       0.82924    0.06853  12.101  < 2e-16 ***
# Petal.Width       -0.31516    0.15120  -2.084  0.03889 *  
# Speciesversicolor -0.72356    0.24017  -3.013  0.00306 ** 
# Speciesvirginica  -1.02350    0.33373  -3.067  0.00258 ** 
# ---
# Signif. codes:  0 '***' 0.001 '**' 0.01 '*' 0.05 '.' 0.1 ' ' 1
# 
# Residual standard error: 0.3068 on 144 degrees of freedom
# Multiple R-squared:  0.8673,	Adjusted R-squared:  0.8627 
# F-statistic: 188.3 on 5 and 144 DF,  p-value: < 2.2e-16

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