ggplot2 Error in R: Mapping should be created with `aes()` or `aes_()`. (2 Examples)

In this tutorial, I’ll demonstrate how to debug the ggplot2 error message “Error: Mapping should be created with `aes()` or `aes_()`.” in the R programming language.

Setting up the Examples

data(iris)                       # Load iris data to R
head(iris)
#   Sepal.Length Sepal.Width Petal.Length Petal.Width Species
# 1          5.1         3.5          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 2          4.9         3.0          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 3          4.7         3.2          1.3         0.2  setosa
# 4          4.6         3.1          1.5         0.2  setosa
# 5          5.0         3.6          1.4         0.2  setosa
# 6          5.4         3.9          1.7         0.4  setosa
install.packages("ggplot2")      # Install & load ggplot2 package
library("ggplot2")

Example 1: Replicating the Error Message – Mapping should be created with `aes()` or `aes_()`.

ggplot(iris,                     # Parentheses at wrong position
       aes(x = iris$Sepal.Length,
           y = iris$Sepal.Width) +
         geom_line())
# Error: Mapping should be created with aes() or aes_().

Example 2: Fixing the Error Message – Mapping should be created with `aes()` or `aes_()`.

ggplot(iris,                     # Parentheses at correct position
       aes(x = Sepal.Length,
           y = Sepal.Width)) +
  geom_line()

r graph figure 1 ggplot2 error r mapping should be created `aes ` or `aes_ `

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